In his presentation, Kari Vitikainen presents common ways to understand and explain the current climate of European thought. Especially he concentrated on human-centred, spirit-centred and Christian

The text is Kari Vitikainen’s lecture to Shia scholars at Al-Mustafa University, Mashhad, Iran in 2013.

King Karl XII of Sweden and Finland lost the battle against the Russian archenemy at Poltava in the summer of 1709. The King together with about 1500 of his soldiers were forced to retreat to Bender in Moldova in the Ottoman Empire. He stayed in Istanbul for five years. This is the beginning of Lutheran church in Istanbul. Pastor Torsten Sandell has written an article about history of Lutheran Church in Turkey.

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